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Espresso Machine Fittings
Espresso machine piping, and fittings are not confusing, once you accept a few basic facts:

ALL of the tubing is measured in metric sizes, by the Outside Diameter (OD) of the tube. 

ALL of the fittings are British Parallel Pipe (BPP) thread. 

Fittings are almost always designed to create the seal at the end of the fittings, not on the threads themselves.   NPT threads, used in North America, seal on the thread, and is tapered.  BPP threads are not tapered, they are parallel. 

An NPT thread can be 'crammed' into an Espresso machine threaded opening, or onto a fitting, but this will often destroy the geometry of the pipe, and lead to difficult installation choices.  When a BPP thread is needed, BPP is what you SHOULD use. 

As a matter of reference - fittings that are "Union" are the same thread on each end, whether male, or female (gender doesn't matter in a union!)  Adapters are for changing thread size from one end to the other.   Some adapters, going from a very large to a very small size are difficult to find in the US, and we hope this selection of fittings will aid in your espresso machine maintenance & repair.

As a further aid to identifying the thread size you need we have are providing this small guide by measuring the actual male thread on a fitting, in comparison to the nominal BPP size:

1/8 inch BPP actual measurement is approx 3/8" across (9mm)
1/4 inch BPP threads actual measurement is approx 1/2" across (12mm)
3/8 inch BPP threads actual measurement is approx 5/8" across (16mm)
1/2 inch BPP threads actual measurement is approx 3/4" across (20mm)
3/4 inch BPP threads actual measurement is approx 1" across (26mm)

For visual explanations of measuring copper tubing & fittings watch our video:

Tech Tip - Espresso Machine Copper Tubing & Compression Fittings - How to Measure

Hope this helps!
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